The s were marked by social and economic unrest throughout the United States, which culminated in the onset of an economic depression between and Mahan believed that the U. What concerned Mahan most was ensuring that the U.
The Spanish-American War and Its Consequences [tuckpitlaetehy.gq]
Government could guarantee access to these new international markets. Seward also attempted to purchase suitable Caribbean naval bases. Finally, he attempted to ratify a treaty with the Colombian Government that would allow the United States to build an isthmian canal through the province of Panama. After the outbreak of hostilities with Spain in May , President William McKinley finally secured the annexation of Hawaii by means of joint resolution of Congress. In addition, the lack of medical knowledge concerning the causes and treatments of tropical diseases such as malaria cost many American lives.
During the course of the war, U. Despite these American shortcomings, the Spanish military was greatly overmatched, and they surrendered on August 12, Cuban freedom was conditional, as they were pressured to sign the Platt Amendment, which prohibited Cuba from contracting debts and allowed the U.
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In America, the Spanish-American War prompted a fast growing anti-imperialist movement, with members such as prominent authors, philosophers, and academics, including Mark Twain, Jane Addams, and Andrew Carnegie. The Filipino people longed for freedom after years of Spanish rule. In the Downes v. Bidwell case of , the U. Supreme Court ruled that products imported from U.
These rulings set an important precedent, since previously acquired land had been eligible for these rights as well as future statehood. On February 4, , a bloody three-year revolution began that left over , Filipinos dead and was responsible for more American casualties than the Spanish-American War.
During the war, ships in the Pacific had to travel around South America in order to join the fleet in Cuba. Another significant reason for a quick route between the Atlantic and the Pacific was that the U. Navy was fast becoming an important, global military player.
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Initially, proponents of the canal considered two sites: Nicaragua and Panama. However, experts quickly concluded that Panama would be a more advantageous and realistic site. The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of between the U.
S and Britain asserted that the U. However, the British were engaged in the South African Boer War and were feeling increasingly threatened by their European neighbors, so they were willing to repeal the treaty. England had little to lose by signing the treaty, and in exchange hoped to secure the U. In addition to legal challenges, there were other significant obstacles to building a canal.
Panama was eager to secure the canal project in the hope that it would revive their lagging economy. However, Panama was controlled by Colombia, and the Colombian Senate rejected a treaty that would have allowed the U. A Panamanian uprising against Colombian rule began on November 3, This coup was backed by Panamanians who sought the prosperity the canal offered as well as representatives of the company that hoped to sell the land to the U.
Period 7 Review (1898-1945) – APUSH
Colombian soldiers were poised to crush the rebellion, but U. This was a bitter victory for the U. Latin Americans were already concerned about American control in Puerto Rico and Cuba, and now they began to fear their neighbor to the north.
After years of dubious politics and relationships, construction began on the Panama Canal in Many obstacles were encountered, including landslides, pestilence, and labor problems. However, a team of engineers persisted, and finally in the Panama Canal was opened and heralded as the greatest technological achievement of its time. The total costs to complete the job were staggering. Around the turn of the twentieth century, Latin American nations began defaulting on massive loans from European powers such as Germany and England.
This issue came to the forefront in , when German warships sank two Venezuelan vessels and bombarded a Venezuelan town.
Roosevelt was intent on keeping European nations out of the Americas. He feared that if he allowed Germany and England into the Hemisphere to collect debts, they might decide to set up permanent bases, which would have been a violation of the Monroe Doctrine of Also, the U. In this clever maneuver, Roosevelt stated that the U. This meant that whenever a Latin American nation was overdue on a debt to a European power, the U. America would pay off the foreign debt, and then take responsibility for collection, thereby guaranteeing the European loan.
Anti-imperialists believed that America was removing the traditional imperialists who were taking advantage of the Banana Republics, for no other reason than to take their place. Corruption and embezzlement were rampant in many of these Latin American countries.
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In the short run, several of these Latin American countries began managing their money more efficiently and achieving financial security for the first time. Countries such as the Dominican Republic and Venezuela were able to manage their resources more effectively and were beginning to emerge as viable trading partners. However, over time as the U. Previous Outline Next Outline. Government Vocabulary Important Documents. Vanderbilt Essays Wash.
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